Thursday, May 30, 2013
Unfortunately it is impossible to know exactly what textiles were imported to early America in the period immediately after the Revolution, when trade with England resumed. Irish artist William Kilburn (1745-1818), was an illustrator for William Curtis' Flora Londinensis, as well as a leading designer & printer of extraordinary calico. A few hundred originals of his water color designs for calico, make up the Kilburn Album, housed at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. Kilburn was not just an amazing talent, he was willing to go to court to try to protect his designs, & he was generous in recognizing his employees.
Woman's Printed Muslin Dress, 1836-1838, fabric 1790-1818, British. This delicate design, the ground densely covered with leaves, is in the style of William Kilburn (1745-1818), designer and calico printer in the late 18th century. The fabric must have been cherished, as this dress has been re-made, as many were during the period to avoid waste.
Kilburn was the son of a Dublin architect Samuel Kilburn and his wife Sarah Johnston. Because of his penchant for drawing & his delicate health, his parents apprenticed him to Jonathan Sisson, an Englishman, who had established a calico printing factory in the countryside at Leixlip, just 8 miles from Dublin.
The seaweed-patterned fabric used for this dress was expensive at the time of its purchase, a guinea per yard. Kilburn gave a similar length for a gown to Queen Charlotte, wife of England’s George III. The printed design was found in an album of Kilburn watercolor drawings in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London. The dress’s style indicates, that it was probably made when the textile was brand new & at its most fashionable, about 1790.
While he was an apprentice, he would rise at 4 am to draw patterns for paper stainers, which, with his master's leave, he sold to earn extra money. The income from this venture gave him pocket money & enabled him to purchase a pony, on which he rode to Dublin on Saturdays, to spend every Sunday with his parents.
When his father died, he decided to visit London, where he obtained a ready sale for his designs amongst the calico printers. He also drew & engraved flowers from nature for the print shops. This led to his acquaintance with William Curtis, the botanist, who hired the uncommon talent to execute the plates for Curtis' work, the Flora Londinensis.
When the young Kilburn had entered into this engagement, he returned to Ireland, brought his mother & sister to small house in Bermondsey with a garden & green-house near the Curtis nursery. There he occupied himself from sunrise to sunset drawing & engraving the plants for the Flora Londinensis.
When he finished his engraving contract, he accepted a proposal to manage a Newton's calico printing factory, at Wallington, for which he was to have a share in the profits without advancing capital. They were so successful that, at the end of 7 years, he purchased the concern becoming sole proprietor.
Because he had worked so hard to attain this position, he gave the highest wages to his workmen, some of whom came from the continent, & gave annual premiums for the best designs. He had the honor of presenting one of his pieces of printed chintz, the sea-weed pattern, designed by himself, to Queen Charlotte.
Finding that his patterns were pirated in Manchester, he applied for a bill, which was brought into Parliament by his neighbour, Edmund Burke, "To secure to calico printers the copyright in original designs."
The bill was passed in May 1787 "An Act for the Encouragement of the Arts of designing & printing Linens, Cottons, Callicoes & Muslins by vesting the Properties thereof in the Designers, Printers, Proprietors for a limited Time." Unfortunately, this "limited Time" was a period of 2 months from the date of first publishing the design. But it was a beginning.
For more biographical information see The Dublin Penny Journal, Volume 1, Number 23, December 1, 1832..
Sunday, May 26, 2013
Jemima Wilkinson (1752-1819), religious leader, founder of a pioneer community in western New York, was born in Cumberland, R.I., the 4th of 6 daughters & 8th of 12 children of Jeremiah & Amey (Whipple) Wilkinson. She was of the 4th generation of her family in America, descended from Lawrence Wilkinson, an early freeman & colonial leader, who settled in Rhode Island about 1650. Her father, a successful farmer & orchardist, was a 1st cousin of Stephen Hopkins, several times governor of the colony & a signer of the Declaration of Independence, & of Esek Hopkins, 1st commander of the American navy. An older brother, Jeremiah, was a noted inventor in Cumberland. The Wilkinsons were Quakers.
It is difficult to separate fact from folklore in the story of Jemima. Little dependable information exists about Jemima’s childhood. Undoubtedly an influence on her development was the death of her mother, worn out by childbearing, when Jemima was only 12 or 13. Deeply interested in religious ideas, the girl read the standard works of Quaker theology & history & so thoroughly absorbed the King James version of the Bible, that scriptural phrases became an integral part of her spoken language. She also was caught up in the religious excitement that accompanied George Whitefield’s last visit to New England &, in August 1776, was dismissed from the Society of Friends for attending meetings of a New Light Baptist group in Cumberland.
In 1776, the 23-year-old woman became ill with a fever; the doctor who attended her later testified that the fever was “translated to the head.” In the course of this illness, she had a vision that convinced her, that she had died & had been sent back from the dead to preach to a sinful & dying world. From that moment, she refused to recognize the name of Jemima Wilkinson, calling herself instead the Publick Universal Friend; & for more than 40 years she firmly adhered to her belief that she was an agent of the Lord.
She began her ministry in southern New England. During the years of the American Revolution she traveled & preached in Rhode Island, eastern Massachusetts, & Connecticut, & after 1782, she made four visits of increasing duration to the vicinity of Philadelphia. Everywhere she attracted followers-both men & women-many of them persons of wealth & social distinction. Most important of these was Judge William Potter of South Kingston, R.I., who freed his slaves because of her teaching & gave up his political career; he also built a 14-room addition to his already spacious mansion for the Universal Friend to use as her headquarters in New England. A wealthy farmer, David Wagener, of Worcester, Pa., was another convert, whose home she used while in Pennsylvania. Meeting-houses were built for her in in East Greenwich, R.I., & New Milford, Conn. Although these were help by trustees in the name of a society of Universal Friends, the Universal Friends was a personal following of Jemima Wilkinson rather than an organized church or sect. Membership apparently was contingent solely upon acceptance of her requirement that “Ye cannot be my friends except de do whatsoever I command you.” The only printed guide for he followers was a small pamphlet entitled The Universal Friend’s Advice to Those of the Same Religious Society, first published for her in Philadelphia in 1784, & later reprinted, after her death, in Penn Yan, N.Y., in 1821 & 1833. This consisted almost entirely of seemingly unrelated quotations from the Bible.
As the Publick Universal Friend, Jemima Wilkinson preached no new or original theological concepts. Repent & forsake evil was the essence of her message; prepare for a future judgment, & “Do unto all men as you would be willing they should do unto you.” Nearly all of the practices she advocated, such as the use of plain language & clothing, opposition to war & violence & to Negro slavery, were standard Quaker beliefs. Celibacy was enjoined as a higher state of grace which she herself practiced & urged, although married couples who joined her society continued to live together & marriages took place among her followers. In this she was much less rigid than her contemporary ANN LEE, founder of the Shakers, with whom she was often compared. There is no indication that the women ever had any contact with each other, & the similarities between them probably stem from their common debt to Quakerism. The Universal Friend’s attraction was based on the emotional impact of her personality & the aura of mysticism that surrounded her. She apparently did little to discourage those of her followers who believed her to be a Messiah capable of performing miracles, although by he frequent denial of divine powers & her ambiguous description of her mission she avoided offending those who did not see in he the second coming of Christ. Several attempts at faith healing were recorded during her early ministry in New England, & she made prophecies & interpreted dreams throughout her life.
Jemima Wilkinson was described in her forties as “of middle stature, well made, of a florid countenance,” with “fine teeth, & beautiful eyes. ….Her black hair was cut short, carefully combed, & divided into three ringlets.” (Francois, Duc de La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Travels through the United States of North America, 1799, I, 112). Her manners of dress, however, was decidedly masculine. She customarily wore a flowing black robe patterned after a clergyman’s garb. Her followers referred to her, not as “she” or “her” but as “the Friend.”
She conceived the idea of a settlement where the faithful could be free from the temptations of the “wicked world” as early as the winder of 1786-86, when scouts were sent to explore the Genesee country of western New York, publicized by the veterans of Gen. John Sullivan’s expedition during the Revolution. In 1788, followers of the Universal Friend began to clear the land o the west side of the Seneca Lake, the first important American outpost in this area. The “Friend’s Settlement” already had a population of 260 when the Universal Friend herself arrived 2 years later. Though the land was purchased by a common fund, common ownership of property was never practiced; each contributor was to received title to a tract of land proportionate to his investment. In practice this proved difficult to arrange, & disputes over land titles caused the defection of some important members, including Judge William Potter & his son. Jemima Wilkinson moved a few miles farther west in 1794, to the vicinity of Crooked Lake (now Keuka Lake), where, with many of the faithful, she established Jerusalem township. She called their settlement on Outlet Creek "Hopeton". She later purchased a tract near Branchport "and we shall call this place "The City of Jerusalem."
She herself owned no land but lived on the proceeds of an estate held in trust for he by a follower. Her home was always open to offer hospitality to travelers in the wilderness & to the Indians, with whom she had a cordial relationship. Not the least of her significance is the role she played in encouraging the settlement of western New York.
During the last few years of her life she suffered from dropsy, & she succumbed to that illness in her 67th year at her home in Jerusalem township. Her body was placed in a stone vault in the cellar of her house but later was buried in an unmarked grave by 2 of her followers. Two of her disciples attempted to carry on the society after her death, but the group gradually disintegrated & within 2 decades had all but disappeared.
This posting based, in part, on information from Notable American Women edited by Edward T James, Janet Wilson James, Paul S Boyer, The Belknap Press of Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 1971
Monday, May 20, 2013
Mary Wollstonecraft, An Historical and Moral View of the Origin and Progress of the French Revolution and the Effect it Has Produced in Europe (London: J. Johnson, 1795).
John Adams wrote in his copy of this book,
"This is a lady of a masculine, masterly understanding. Her style is nervous and clear, often elegant: though sometimes too verbose. With a little experience in public affairs and the reading and reflection which would result from it, she would have produced a history without the defects and blemishes pointed out with too much severity perhaps and too little gallantry in the notes.
The improvement, the exaltation of the human character, the perfectibility of man, the perfection of the human faculties are the divine object which her enthusiasm beholds in beatific vision. Alas, how airy and baseless a fabric!
Yet she will not admit of the only means that can accomplish any part of her ardent prophecies: forms of government, so mixed, combined, and balanced as to restrain the passions of all orders of men." (Inscribed on page [iv])
Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin (1759-1797), better known as just Mary Wollstonecraft, was an 18th-century British writer, philosopher, & advocate of women's rights. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a travel narrative, a history of the French Revolution, a conduct book, & a children's book. Wollstonecraft is best known for A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), in which she argues that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be only because they lack education. She suggests that both men & women should be treated as rational beings and imagines a social order founded on reason.
In the 1780s, life was more rigidly stratified than it is today: people knew where they belonged, & law and custom kept them there. Women labored under special disabilities. Politically disenfranchised, they also could not join the professions & were barred from many jobs. Married women had no rights to property or even to their own children. Centuries of common sense claimed that women were less than men in every way except in their ability to bear children. But, in the wake of the American & French Revolutions, political equality & something like a sexual revolution for women seemed possible. Moreover, thanks partly to Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), the legal & social restrictions under which women lived were briefly but hotly contested into the early 19th-century.